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Teoville Subdivision, Parañaque City, Philippines

Segregation of Wastes at Source

segregation should start at the household levelSegregation of waste at source is the key to any successful solid waste management scheme. In Teoville, each household should have two garbage bags: one for the biodegradable wastes (wet, kitchen wastes such as leftover food, sweepings), and another for the recyclable (dry) wastes such as paper, plastics, bottles, glass, and the like. They are encouraged to clean the non-biodegradable materials before disposing it and to chop kitchen leftovers into smaller pieces.

It is important that households understand the value of segregation. This was given top priority in Teoville. For more than six months, a series of training/workshops and seminars on waste segregation as well as other basic knowledge on composting were held attended by the residents as well as the househelpers.

Technology

composComposting, the process of converting organic matter into compost or organic fertilizer through the action of microorganisms, can be successfully done not just in the countryside but also in urban areas. In the process of composting, microorganisms break down organic matter and carbon dioxide, water, heat, and humus – the relatively stable organic end product. Under optimal conditions, composting undergoes through three phases:

  1. The moderate-temperature phase, which lasts for a couple of days. Organisms break down the soluble, readily degradable compounds.
  2. The high-temperature phase, which can last from few days to several months. High temperature kills many forms of microbes and limit the rate of decomposition. Aeration and mixing will keep the temperature down.
  3. The cooling and maturation phase, which can last several months.

The rate of which composting occurs depends on physical and chemical factors. Temperature is the key parameter in determining the success of composting operations. Physical characterisitics of the compost ingedients, including moisture content (too little, <30% inhibits bacterial activity; too much, >65% slow down decomposition process) and particle size, affect the rate at which composting occurs. Other physical considerations include the size and shape of the system, which affect the type and rate of aeration and the tendency of the compost to retain or dissipate the heat that is generated.

Required Equipment and Materials:

  • Hammermill/shredder (optional)
  • 7 units of Composter Drums – (one for each day of the week), priced at P5,200.00 each at Lacto Asia Enterprise (main office/plant at Dr. Fernandez corner Calbayog Streets, Mandaluyong City)
  • Cocodust – pulverized coconut husk, priced at PhP50.00 per sack
  • Activator Microorganisms – Lactobacilli (this project specifically uses Happy Soil, priced ar P80.00 per bag of 2 kilograms. It is supplied by the Lacto Asia Enterprise.
  • Sieve – can be made of screen with a wooden frame.

The Teoville/YWCA System:

The facility would require an area of at least 200 square meters, preferably not immediately next to a residential house. The place will also be utilized to temporarily store the non-biodegradables for disposal.

a.  Wet Garbage

morning collector of wet garbageThe wet garbage is collected every morning before 11:00AM. For easy collection, homeowners are encouraged to put their kitchen wastes in containers that are not disposable (the use of plastic half-gallon ice cream container is recommended). A collector uses a "tri-sikad" (three-wheeler pedicab driven manually) that goes around the subdivision.

At the processing site, the bigger-size bio-wastes may be put in a hammermill/shredder for size reduction to enhance the composting process. Chopping it to smaller sizes at the source can be put into practice when shredder is not available.

composter drumsIt is then placed inside the composter drum with 10% cocodust as carbon amendment to control the moisture content, and 1% Happy Soil. The drum is regularly rotated at least 5 times a day. After each rotation, the lid cover of the drum is left open to release the carbon gasses and water that build up during the fermentation process.

On the seventh day, the contents of the composter drum are brought out and are exposed to air dry. It is imperative that in the drying process, the contents of the composter drum should not be exposed to sun nor rain. These can be sieved after 3 days. The product of the process which is now an organic fertilizer is now ready for packaging.

b. Dry Garbage

mini-truck that collects dry garbage three times a weekThe dry garbage is collected 3 times a week by a mini-truck. These are manually sorted (paper, bottles, plastics, etc.), cleaned, and classified for storage. When a certain volume is reached it is sold to the junk yards.

Any garbage not properly segregated is not collected. There are no garbage bins around the subdivision to discourage improper disposal of wastes since this is perceived to be a constraint to waste segregation and collection.


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