Segregation of Wastes at Source
Segregation of waste at source is the key to any successful solid
waste management scheme. In Teoville, each household should have two garbage bags: one for
the biodegradable wastes (wet, kitchen wastes such as leftover food, sweepings), and
another for the recyclable (dry) wastes such as paper, plastics, bottles, glass, and the
like. They are encouraged to clean the non-biodegradable materials before disposing it and
to chop kitchen leftovers into smaller pieces.
It is important that households understand
the value of segregation. This was given top priority in Teoville. For more than six
months, a series of training/workshops and seminars on waste segregation as well as other
basic knowledge on composting were held attended by the residents as well as the
Composting, the process of
converting organic matter into compost or organic
fertilizer through the action of microorganisms, can be successfully done not just in the
countryside but also in urban areas. In the process of composting, microorganisms break
down organic matter and carbon dioxide, water, heat, and humus the relatively
stable organic end product. Under optimal conditions, composting undergoes through three
The moderate-temperature phase, which
lasts for a couple of days. Organisms break down the soluble, readily degradable
The high-temperature phase, which can
last from few days to several months. High temperature kills many forms of microbes and
limit the rate of decomposition. Aeration and mixing will keep the temperature down.
The cooling and maturation phase,
which can last several months.
The rate of which composting occurs
depends on physical and chemical factors. Temperature is the key parameter in determining
the success of composting operations. Physical characterisitics of the compost ingedients,
including moisture content (too little, <30% inhibits bacterial activity; too much,
>65% slow down decomposition process) and particle size, affect the rate at which
composting occurs. Other physical considerations include the size and shape of the system,
which affect the type and rate of aeration and the tendency of the compost to retain or
dissipate the heat that is generated.
Required Equipment and
7 units of Composter Drums
(one for each day of the week), priced at P5,200.00 each at Lacto Asia Enterprise (main office/plant at Dr.
Fernandez corner Calbayog Streets, Mandaluyong City)
Cocodust pulverized coconut
husk, priced at PhP50.00 per sack
Lactobacilli (this project specifically uses Happy Soil, priced ar P80.00 per bag of 2
kilograms. It is supplied by the Lacto Asia Enterprise.
Sieve can be made of screen
with a wooden frame.
The Teoville/YWCA System:
The facility would require an area
of at least 200 square meters, preferably not immediately next to a residential house. The
place will also be utilized to temporarily store the non-biodegradables for disposal.
a. Wet Garbage
The wet garbage is collected every morning before 11:00AM. For easy
collection, homeowners are encouraged to put their kitchen wastes in containers that are
not disposable (the use of plastic half-gallon ice cream container is recommended). A
collector uses a "tri-sikad" (three-wheeler pedicab driven manually) that goes
around the subdivision.
At the processing site, the
bigger-size bio-wastes may be put in a hammermill/shredder for size reduction to enhance
the composting process. Chopping it to smaller sizes at the source can be put into
practice when shredder is not available.
It is then placed inside the
composter drum with 10% cocodust as carbon amendment to control the moisture content, and
1% Happy Soil. The drum is regularly rotated at least 5 times a day. After each rotation,
the lid cover of the drum is left open to release the carbon gasses and water that build
up during the fermentation process.
On the seventh day, the contents of
the composter drum are brought out and are exposed to air dry. It is imperative that in
the drying process, the contents of the composter drum should not be exposed to sun nor
rain. These can be sieved after 3 days. The product of the process which is now an organic
fertilizer is now ready for packaging.
b. Dry Garbage
The dry garbage is collected 3 times a week by a mini-truck.
These are manually sorted (paper, bottles, plastics, etc.), cleaned, and classified for
storage. When a certain volume is reached it is sold to the junk yards.
Any garbage not properly segregated
is not collected. There are no garbage bins around the subdivision to discourage improper
disposal of wastes since this is perceived to be a constraint to waste segregation and
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