Chapter 2: Action Agenda


1.  Policy and Legal Issues

-  Lack of coordination among government agencies

-  Conflicting policy issuances of different agencies

-  Lack of integrated planning of a Coastal Zone Management Plan

-  Inadequate site specific policies

-  Conflicting land and water use

Overlapping jurisdiction

1.1  Review National Marine Policy to harmonize with provisions of the UNCLOS and other conflicting policy issuances at the national and local levels, involving stakeholders National Marine Policy adopted 1996 - 2002 DENR, DA, LGUs, DFA, NEDA, NGOs
1.2  Work for the passage of the Fisheries Code that recognizes the primacy of fishing communities in the management of and access to marine resources Draft Fisheries Code reviewed and revised, in consultation with congress 1997 DA, DENR, NGOs/POs, communities
1.3  Prepare a Comprehensive coastal Zone Management Plan at the national, regional and local levels with genuine participation of communities (delineating areas for household, residential and business) in all phases of the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation processes Comprehensive Coastal Zone Management Plan implemented to include establishment of marine protected areas, promotion of community-based resource management and ecotourism 1997 DENR, DA, NEDA, LGUs
1.4  Formulate policies regarding nearshore areas which can be delineated for various purposes, including mangroves, reclamation and tourism Relevant policies formulated 1997 DA, DENR, DILG, NGOs
Guidelines on the responsibilities/jurisdiction of various agencies regarding mangroves, coastal and offshore resources formulated 1997 DA, DENR, DILG, NGOs, POs, communities
1.5  Identify priority areas and set targets for:

(a) coral reef rehabilitation
(b) mangrove reforestation
(c) seagrass rehabilitation
(d) swampland

10% of degraded area rehabilitated per year depending on existing local situation
1.6  Evaluate FLAs to determine their productivity with the objective of canceling unsustainable ones and reverting these to mangroves Unsustainable/unproductive fishponds reverted to mangroves/public domain

Provision of FLA enforced

Unproductive FLAs cancelled

1998 DA, DENR, DILG, NGOs, POs, communities
1.7  Review intensively  existing bilateral agreements especially those affecting fisheries management and immediately institute measures to correct such violations Review completed and recommendations forwarded to appropriate bodies

EO 473 cancelled

1997 DFA, DND, LGUs, communities
1.8  Evaluation of existing fishing methods in relation to the sustainability of the fisheries resource Rules and regulations on fishing methods revised LGUs
1.9  Evaluation of culture technologies in relation to the sustainability of the resource and its impact to the environment MCS implemented in strategic areas DA, DILG, NGOs
1.10  Develop anti-poaching/illegal fishing plans funded by municipal resolutions, and developed in a participatory manner 1997
1.11  Adoption of Monitoring Control and Surveillance (MCS) system for the country New rules on the industry formulated  and enforced 1998
1.12  Review rules/regulations on shells, shellcraft and livefish trade
2.  Uncoordinated and conflicting uses of the coastal and marine ecosystems

-  Enforcement

-  Unsustainable technologies/approaches

2.1  Adopt and utilize an ecosystems approach in the management of coastal and marine areas/resources Carrying capacity studies conducted 1997 DENR, DA, Academe/Research Institutions, LGUs, PEA, DPWH
2.2  Conduct carrying capacity studies of priority coastal areas including containing studies on the size, distribution, recruitment levels and interaction among the different fishery resources Research funds allocated long term DA-BFAR, Academe, LGUs, DENR, DOST
2.3  Ensure access to scientific and technical researches on the ecosystems approach especially those simplified for use of developing countries (i.e., ICLARM studies) medium term - continuing DENR, DA, LGUs, DOST, Academe
2.4  Conduct programmatic EIA for coastal and marine development projects Guidelines/criteria on types of projects for coastal and marine formulated 1997 DENR-MGB, DPWH, DA, DOST, Academe
2.5  Strictly enforce protection measures for the coastal/marine resources Fishing gear restrictions strictly enforced and capability for enforcement enhanced 1996 onwards DENR, DA, LGUs, NGOs, communities
2.6  Modernize the Bantay-Dagat Program NGOs,/POs deputized

Equipment and monitoring facilities upgraded and installed

1997 DND, DENR, DA
2.7  Provide mechanisms to facilitate fishery cases Special prosecutor assigned to handle fishery-related cases 1997
2.8  Penalize violators of marine and fisheries laws (e.g., muro ami) thru criminal liability Appropriate legislative/administrative instruments enacted
3.  Deterioration of shore and water quality due to pollution, sedimentation and costal erosion 3.1  Include adjacent watersheds in the delineation of marine reserves and coastal areas Guidelines developed and implemented 1997 LGUs, DENR, DA, NGOs, POs
3.2  Formulate an appropriate action plan for protection of marine environment from land-based activity Action Plan formulated
3.3  Establish monitoring of pollution and sedimentation patterns and rates
3.4  Develop plans and measures to prevent accidental release of oils, particularly from coastal refineries and capacities to respond to such accidents (see also Urban) DS parameters operationalized in development of plans and measures
3.5  Undertake intensive coastal geomorphical studies in critical areas Studies undertaken and recommendations implemented
3.6  Review and evaluate existing and proposed development plans of economic growth centers to ensure adherence to SD principles and parameters (e.g. Cagayan-Iligan Corridor, Cebu Triangle, etc.) PD 984 strictly implemented

EIA system strictly implemented

Genuine public consultation/dialogues particularly with affected communities conducted

Community-based multisectoral monitoring bodies created

4.  Socio-Economic Issues

-  Poverty

-  Lack of viable livelihood options

-  Lack of basic health and social services

-  Competition for local resources

-  Lack of appreciation of the importance of coastal resources/ecosystems

4.1  Review fisheries lending schemes and provide accessible credit facilities Accessible alternative credit facilities provided DENR, cooperatives, rural banks, Land Bank, TLRC, LGUs, NGOs/POs, PIA, DECS, DA
4.2  Conduct research and development for identification/provision of alternative livelihood
4.3  Provide training for business enterprise management and technology transfer Trainings conducted
4.4  Develop mechanisms that would increase/facilitate access to basic social service Improved infrastructures and facilities provided

Social infrastructures strengthened

4.5  Develop mechanisms that provide equity in access to coastal resources Mechanisms providing equity in access to coastal resources developed and formulated DENR, DA, NEDA, LGUs, NGOs, POs
4.6  Promote the active participation of all sectors in planning for the management of coastal resources/ecosystems DENR, DA, PIA, NGOs/POs, DECS, PCAMRRD
4.7  Conduct extensive and intensive IEC on coastal/marine resources conservation
4.8 Integration of Coastal/Marine ecosystem on both formal and non-formal education curriculum IEC and training modules/textbooks developed
5.  Lack of capacity to effectively manage coastal and marine ecosystems

-  Inadequate technical capability

-  Lack of long-term monitoring and research program

Institute capacity building and information support measures to enable the communities to participate in the management of coastal and marine ecosystem Nationwide skills upgrading, training on coastal and marine ecosystems management conducted 1996 - 2002 DA, DENR, Academe, LGUs, research institutions, DOST, NGOs
5.1  Coordinate with research institutions/academes on upgrading skills of staff and workers on the management of coastal and marine resources
5.2  Organize multi-sectoral monitoring team to regularly assess the status of the area and to evaluate impacts of activities/projects on the resources and environment Strengthen at least one multi-sectoral team per province
-Lack of capable and knowledgeable workers to assist local communities

-  Data/Information not organized and accessible

5.3  Train communities to gather data/information on simple coastal and marine attributes, especially coastal and marine biodiversity Communities trained to gather data on coastal/marine attributes 1996 - 2002 DA, DENR, Academe, LGUs, research institutions, DOST, NGOs
5.4  Develop and maintain databases fro assessment and management of coastal and marine ecosystem Databases developed and updated regularly 1996 - onwards - do -
5.5  Develop and enhance capability in the use of state of the art planning and management tools such as GIS, GPS and the like Communities trained on the use of management tools DENR, DA
5.6  Provide easy access to information by linking stakeholders to electronic networks Existing research and information network (e.g. PCAMRD, local centers) strengthened and expanded 1997 - 1998 DENR, DA, Academe/research institutions, DOST
5.7  Develop, adopt and share analytical and predictive tools such as stock assessment and bioeconomic models
5.8  Develop scientific and technological capabilities for coastal and marine researches, monitoring and equipment
5.9  Provide technical and financial traditional knowledge of marine living resources and fishing techniques


Back to Previous Page   Go to Main Page